Exploration Images
Apollo 16:  Far-ultraviolet image of the Earth, taken with a small telescope on the lunar surface.

AS16-123-19650 (21 April 1972) —- A far ultraviolet photograph reveals the geocorona, a halo of low density hydrogen which surrounds Earth. The photograph was taken by astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 16 mission commander, during the first spacewalk of his trip to the moon. Young and Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, explored the moon’s surface while Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit. The UV camera was designed and built at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.

Apollo 16: Far-ultraviolet image of the Earth, taken with a small telescope on the lunar surface.

AS16-123-19650 (21 April 1972) —- A far ultraviolet photograph reveals the geocorona, a halo of low density hydrogen which surrounds Earth. The photograph was taken by astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 16 mission commander, during the first spacewalk of his trip to the moon. Young and Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, explored the moon’s surface while Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit. The UV camera was designed and built at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.
Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter:  Before & after photos of a new crater on the moon.

On 11 September 2013 the “Moon Impacts Detection and Analysis System” (MIDAS) camera captured a bright 8-second long flash on the central nearside of the Moon. This was the brightest event captured so far by the MIDAS team, and they estimated that the crater should be between 46 and 56 meters in diameter. The LROC team targeted the reported coordinates (17.2°S, 339.5°E) of the flash and acquired several images over a few months until the crater was found on 13 April 2014!

Fortunately there was a NAC image of the target area acquired before the impact, so finding the new crater was relatively easy once an “after” image with comparable lighting to the “before” image was acquired. As it turns out the new crater is ~34 meters (112 feet) in diameter and is located at 17.167°S, 339.559°E, only 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) from the original telescope-based prediction. In the before-after animation you can see ejecta effects from the crater extend out more than 500 meters in all directions!

Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: Before & after photos of a new crater on the moon.

On 11 September 2013 the “Moon Impacts Detection and Analysis System” (MIDAS) camera captured a bright 8-second long flash on the central nearside of the Moon. This was the brightest event captured so far by the MIDAS team, and they estimated that the crater should be between 46 and 56 meters in diameter. The LROC team targeted the reported coordinates (17.2°S, 339.5°E) of the flash and acquired several images over a few months until the crater was found on 13 April 2014!

Fortunately there was a NAC image of the target area acquired before the impact, so finding the new crater was relatively easy once an “after” image with comparable lighting to the “before” image was acquired. As it turns out the new crater is ~34 meters (112 feet) in diameter and is located at 17.167°S, 339.559°E, only 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) from the original telescope-based prediction. In the before-after animation you can see ejecta effects from the crater extend out more than 500 meters in all directions!
Rosetta:  3D anaglyph of the prime landing site chosen for the Philae lander.

This anaglyph image of Philae’s primary landing site on the ‘head’ of Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko can be viewed using stereoscopic glasses with red–green/blue filters.

The two images used to make the anaglyph were taken on 26 August 2014 from a distance of 48 km with Rosetta’s OSIRIS narrow-angle camera. The image scale is 0.96 metres/pixel.

The primary landing location, Site J, was selected during the Landing Site Selection Group meeting held 13–14 September 2014.

Full story: 'J' marks the spot for Rosetta's lander

Credits: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA

Rosetta: 3D anaglyph of the prime landing site chosen for the Philae lander.

This anaglyph image of Philae’s primary landing site on the ‘head’ of Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko can be viewed using stereoscopic glasses with red–green/blue filters.

The two images used to make the anaglyph were taken on 26 August 2014 from a distance of 48 km with Rosetta’s OSIRIS narrow-angle camera. The image scale is 0.96 metres/pixel.

The primary landing location, Site J, was selected during the Landing Site Selection Group meeting held 13–14 September 2014.

Full story: 'J' marks the spot for Rosetta's lander
Credits: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA

The Lunar Orbiter: A Spacecraft to Advance Lunar Exploration (NASA/Boeing,1965)

“The film describes the Lunar Orbiter’s mission to photograph landing areas on the Moon. The Orbiter will be launched from Cape Kennedy using an Atlas Agena booster rocket. Once it is boosted in a trajectory toward the Moon, the Orbiter will deploy two-way earth communication antennas and solar panels for electricity. Attitude control jets will position the solar panels toward the sun and a tracker for a fix on its navigational star. The Orbiter will be put in an off-center orbit around the Moon where it will circle from four to six days. Scientists on Earth will study the effects of the Moon’s gravitational field on the spacecraft, then the orbit will be lowered to 28 miles above the Moon’s surface. Engineers will control the Orbiter manually or by computer to activate two camera lenses. The cameras will capture pictures of 12,000 square miles of lunar surface in 25 and 400 square mile increments. Pictures will be sent back to Earth using solar power to transmit electrical signals. The signals will be received by antennas at Goldstone, CA, and in Australia and Spain. Incoming photographic data will be electronically converted and processed to produce large-scale photographic images. The mission will be directed from the Space Flight Operations Facility in Pasadena, CA by NASA and Boeing engineers. After the photographic mission, the Orbiter will continue to circle the Moon providing information about micrometeoroids and radiation in the vicinity.”
NASA Goldstone radar image of newly-discovered asteroid 2014 RC, which flew past the earth on Sunday, September 7th at a distance of only around 21,000 miles.  It’s estimated to be around 20 meters across (roughly the size of the Chelyabinsk meteor), and rotates on its axis in less than 16 seconds, giving it the shortest known “day” of any object in the solar system.  The radar image was made with the 70 meter dish at Goldstone, thus the rock is actually smaller (diameter-wise, at least) than the telescope that observed it.  The NASA caption:

Bistatic delay-Doppler image from Sep. 7.  Resolution is 3.75 m x 50 Hz.  This is a 16-second integration that spans one full rotation by the asteroid.  The asteroid rotates so rapidly and it’s so small that the radar images do not show any detail.  Range increases downward and Doppler frequency increases to the right. At the time of the observations, the asteroid was slightly more than one lunar distance from Earth.

NASA Goldstone radar image of newly-discovered asteroid 2014 RC, which flew past the earth on Sunday, September 7th at a distance of only around 21,000 miles. It’s estimated to be around 20 meters across (roughly the size of the Chelyabinsk meteor), and rotates on its axis in less than 16 seconds, giving it the shortest known “day” of any object in the solar system. The radar image was made with the 70 meter dish at Goldstone, thus the rock is actually smaller (diameter-wise, at least) than the telescope that observed it. The NASA caption:

Bistatic delay-Doppler image from Sep. 7. Resolution is 3.75 m x 50 Hz. This is a 16-second integration that spans one full rotation by the asteroid. The asteroid rotates so rapidly and it’s so small that the radar images do not show any detail. Range increases downward and Doppler frequency increases to the right. At the time of the observations, the asteroid was slightly more than one lunar distance from Earth.
Rosetta:  "Selfie" with comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

Using the CIVA camera on Rosetta’s Philae lander, the spacecraft have snapped a ‘selfie’ at comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The image was taken on 7 September from a distance of about 50 km from the comet, and captures the side of the Rosetta spacecraft and one of Rosetta’s 14 m-long solar wings, with 67P/C-G in the background. Two images with different exposure times were combined to bring out the faint details in this very high contrast situation.

Rosetta: "Selfie" with comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

Using the CIVA camera on Rosetta’s Philae lander, the spacecraft have snapped a ‘selfie’ at comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko. The image was taken on 7 September from a distance of about 50 km from the comet, and captures the side of the Rosetta spacecraft and one of Rosetta’s 14 m-long solar wings, with 67P/C-G in the background. Two images with different exposure times were combined to bring out the faint details in this very high contrast situation.
Cassini:  Saturn’s rings & polar hexagon, September 3rd 2014

W00089409.jpg was taken on September 03, 2014 and received on Earth September 04, 2014. The camera was pointing toward SATURN at approximately 1,868,571 miles (3,007,174 kilometers) away, and the image was taken using the CL1 and RED filters.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute

Cassini: Saturn’s rings & polar hexagon, September 3rd 2014

W00089409.jpg was taken on September 03, 2014 and received on Earth September 04, 2014. The camera was pointing toward SATURN at approximately 1,868,571 miles (3,007,174 kilometers) away, and the image was taken using the CL1 and RED filters.
Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
Arecibo radar image of lunar crater Aristillus, showing what it looks like under the surface layer of loose rocks and dust.

This radar image reveals how the lunar impact crater known as Aristillus looks beneath its cover of dust. The radar echoes reveal geologic features of the large debris field created by the force of the impact. The dark “halo” surrounding the crater is due to pulverized debris beyond the rugged, radar-bright rim deposits. The image also shows traces of lava-like features produced when lunar rock melted from the heat of the impact. The crater is approximately 34 miles in diameter and 2 miles deep.

Credit: Bruce Campbell, Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum; Arecibo/NAIC; NRAO/AUI/NSF

Arecibo radar image of lunar crater Aristillus, showing what it looks like under the surface layer of loose rocks and dust.

This radar image reveals how the lunar impact crater known as Aristillus looks beneath its cover of dust. The radar echoes reveal geologic features of the large debris field created by the force of the impact. The dark “halo” surrounding the crater is due to pulverized debris beyond the rugged, radar-bright rim deposits. The image also shows traces of lava-like features produced when lunar rock melted from the heat of the impact. The crater is approximately 34 miles in diameter and 2 miles deep.
Credit: Bruce Campbell, Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum; Arecibo/NAIC; NRAO/AUI/NSF

JAXA animation for the upcoming Hayabusa 2 probe. It’s scheduled to launch in December, and it’s heading to asteroid 1999 JU3. It’ll drop a few mini-probes onto the surface, as well as an explosive device designed to create a small, fresh crater. Hayabusa 2 will then gather dust samples from the new crater and return them to the Earth.

Rosetta:  Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, September 5th 2014

Jagged cliffs and prominent boulders are visible in this image taken by OSIRIS, Rosetta’s scientific imaging system, on 5 September 2014 from a distance of 62 kilometres from comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The left part of the image shows a side view of the comet’s ‘body’, while the right is the back of its ‘head’. One pixel corresponds to 1.1 metres.

Credits: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA

Rosetta: Comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, September 5th 2014

Jagged cliffs and prominent boulders are visible in this image taken by OSIRIS, Rosetta’s scientific imaging system, on 5 September 2014 from a distance of 62 kilometres from comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The left part of the image shows a side view of the comet’s ‘body’, while the right is the back of its ‘head’. One pixel corresponds to 1.1 metres.
Credits: ESA/Rosetta/MPS for OSIRIS Team MPS/UPD/LAM/IAA/SSO/INTA/UPM/DASP/IDA